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The British eventually caught him on 4 November 1840.
He remained in captivity during their occupation and the disastrous retreat from Kabul in January 1842.
Shah Shujah-ul-Mulk (1785-1842) was the Amir of Afghanistan from 1802 until 1809 when he was driven out by his rival Mahmud Shah.
During the First Afghan War (1838-42), the Governor-General of India Lord Auckland, attempted to restore Shah Shujah against the wishes of the Afghan people.
In summer of 1839 the British-Indian Army of the Indus, under the command of Sir John Keane, captured Kandahar and the fortress of Ghazni. Amir Dost Mohammed fled from the capital and Shah Shujah was duly installed in his place in August 1839.
Dost Mohammed Khan (1793-1863), a member of the Barakzai dynasty, was Amir of Afghanistan from 1826 to 1839.
His country’s position between the Russian Empire and India meant that the British East India Company was anxious to ensure that a pro-British Amir was on the throne at Kabul.
Fearful of a Russian invasion of India via Afghanistan, in 1837 the British sent an envoy to Kabul to gain his support.Dost Mohammed was in favour of an alliance, but when the British refused to help him regain Peshawar, which the Sikhs had seized in 1834, he prepared to talk to the Russians, who sent an envoy to Kabul.This led Lord Auckland, the Governor-General of India, to conclude that Dost Mohammed was anti-British.The decision was taken to replace him as Amir with a former ruler, Shah Shujah.In March 1839 a British force advanced through the Bolan Pass, and on 26 April reached Kandahar.Shah Shujah was proclaimed ruler, and entered Kabul on 7 August, while Dost Mohammed sought refuge in the Hindu Kush.